Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011
Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies


The Company

     USANA Health Sciences, Inc. (the "Company") develops and manufactures high-quality nutritional and personal care products that are sold internationally through a global network marketing system, which is a form of direct selling. The Company operates in a single business segment as a direct selling company and reports operations in two geographic regions: North America and Asia Pacific, which is further divided into three sub-regions; Southeast Asia/Pacific, Greater China, and North Asia. North America includes the United States, Canada, Mexico, and direct sales from the United States to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Southeast Asia/Pacific includes Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Greater China includes Hong Kong, Taiwan and China; and North Asia includes Japan and South Korea.

Principles of consolidation and basis of presentation

     The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts and operations of USANA Health Sciences, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively, the "Company" or "USANA"). All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in this consolidation. The accounting and reporting policies of the Company conform with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (US GAAP).

Use of estimates

     The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and the related notes. Significant estimates for the Company relate to revenue recognition, inventory obsolescence, goodwill, equity-based compensation, and income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. These estimates may be adjusted as more current information becomes available, and any adjustment could be significant.

Fiscal year

     The Company operates on a 52-53 week year, ending on the Saturday closest to December 31. Fiscal years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 52-week years. Fiscal year 2009 covered the period January 4, 2009 to January 2, 2010 (hereinafter 2009). Fiscal year 2010 covered the period January 3, 2010 to January 1, 2011 (hereinafter 2010). Fiscal year 2011 covered the period January 2, 2011 to December 31, 2011 (hereinafter 2011).

Fair value of financial instruments

     The Company's financial instruments include: cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, restricted cash, and accounts payable. The recorded values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, and accounts payable approximate their fair values, based on their short-term nature. The recorded value of restricted cash is determined based on the principal amount and interest accrual.

     The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date.

The three levels are defined as follows:

  • Level 1 inputs are quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that are accessible at the measurement date.
  • Level 2 inputs are from other than quoted market prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.
  • Level 3 inputs are unobservable and are used to measure fair value in situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.

     The fair values of term deposits placed with banks are determined based on the pervasive interest rates in the market, which are also the interest rates as stated in the contracts with the banks. The Company classifies the valuation techniques that use the pervasive interest rates input as Level 2. The carrying values of these term deposits approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities. As of January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011 the fair value of term deposits in the consolidated balance sheet totaled $3,034, and $0, respectively. These term deposits have been classified within prepaid expenses and other current assets.


Translation of foreign currencies

     The functional currency of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is the local currency of their country of domicile. Assets and liabilities of the foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollar amounts at month-end exchange rates. Revenue and expense accounts are translated at the weighted-average rates for the monthly accounting period to which they relate. Equity accounts are translated at historical rates. Foreign currency translation adjustments are accumulated as a component of other comprehensive income. Foreign currency gains and losses resulting from intercompany transactions are included in the "Other, net" component of Other income (expense) in the Company's consolidated statements of earnings.

Cash and cash equivalents

     The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents.

Restricted Cash

     The Company is required to maintain cash deposits with banks in certain subsidiary locations for various operating purposes.

     The most significant of these cash deposits as of December 31, 2011 was $3,166, which is held at a PRC bank and related to the Company's China operations. This deposit is required by the rules of the Ministry of Commerce and the State of Administration for Industry & Commerce of the PRC for the Company's China operations application for a direct sales license, and will continue to be restricted during the periods while the Company holds this license. Restricted cash is included in other assets.


     Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, using the first-in, first-out method. The components of inventory cost include raw materials, labor, and overhead. Inventories are assessed to ensure that they are valued at estimated market value using various assumptions in regard to excess or slow-moving inventories, non-conforming inventories, expiration dates, current and future product demand, production planning, and market conditions. A change in any of these variables could result in an adjustment to inventory.

Income taxes

     The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of the differences between the financial statement assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income in the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax expense or benefit is the result of changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities. The Company evaluates the probability of realizing the future benefits of its deferred tax assets and provides a valuation allowance for the portion of any deferred tax assets where the likelihood of realizing an income tax benefit in the future does not meet the "more-likely-than-not" criteria for recognition. The Company recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income taxes. Deferred taxes are not provided on the portion of undistributed earnings of subsidiaries outside of the United States when these earnings are considered permanently reinvested. At December 31, 2011, taxes had not been provided on $927 of accumulated undistributed earnings of subsidiaries that has been or is intended to be permanently reinvested.


Property and equipment

     Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Maintenance, repairs, and renewals, which neither materially add to the value of the property nor appreciably prolong its life, are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation is provided in amounts sufficient to relate the cost of depreciable assets to operations over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. The straight-line method of depreciation and amortization is followed for financial statement purposes. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the life of the respective lease or the useful life of the improvements. Property and equipment are reviewed for impairment to determine whether events or changes in circumstances exist that indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. When property and equipment are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the results of operations for the respective period.


     Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of identifiable net assets of acquired companies. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is tested at least annually for impairment or more frequently if triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate impairment. During the third quarter ended October 1, 2011, the Company early adopted new guidance which simplifies the goodwill impairment test by allowing the option to first assess qualitative factors in order to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Some of these qualitative factors may include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, a change in financial performance, entity-specific events, a sustained decrease in share price, and consideration of the difference between the fair value and carrying amount of a reporting unit as determined in the most recent quantitative assessment. If, through this qualitative assessment, the conclusion is made that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying amount, a two-step impairment analysis is performed to estimate the fair value of goodwill. The first step involves comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the process involves comparing the implied fair value to the carrying amount of the goodwill of that reporting unit. If the carrying amount of the goodwill of a reporting unit exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. Fair value of each reporting unit at December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2011 was greater than the carrying amount; therefore, no impairment was recorded.

Intangible Assets

     Intangible assets represent definite-lived and indefinite-lived intangible assets acquired in connection with the purchase of the Company's China subsidiary in 2010. These intangible assets have been measured at the acquisition-date fair value using various methodologies applied within the income approach. Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their related useful lives. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized; however, they are tested at least annually for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances exist that may indicate impairment. The amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying amount and the fair value of the impaired asset. There have been no events or changes in circumstances that have occurred subsequent to the acquisition of the indefinite-lived assets that would indicate impairment.

Self insurance

     The Company is self-insured, up to certain limits, for employee group health claims. The Company has purchased stop-loss insurance on both an individual and an aggregate basis, which will reimburse the Company for individual claims in excess of $100 and aggregate claims that are greater than 100% of projected claims. A liability is accrued and reflected in the Balance Sheet for all unpaid claims. Total expense under this self insurance program was $3,355, $3,391 and $4,274 in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively.


Common stock and additional paid-in capital

     The Company records cash that it receives upon the exercise of equity awards by crediting common stock and additional paid-in capital. The Company received $131, $12,005 and $39 in cash proceeds from the exercise of equity awards in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The Company also realizes an income tax benefit from the exercise of certain equity awards. For equity awards earned prior to January 1, 2006, this tax benefit resulted in a decrease in current income taxes payable and an increase in additional paid-in capital. For equity awards earned after January 1, 2006, the tax benefits are recorded in accordance with ASC 718-740, "Compensation-Stock Compensation." Under ASC 718-740, the Company establishes deferred tax assets for the value of certain equity awards.

     Upon exercise, the deferred tax assets are reversed and the difference between the deferred tax assets and the realized tax benefit creates a tax windfall or shortfall that increases or decreases the additional paid-in capital pool ("APIC Pool"). If the APIC Pool is reduced to zero, additional shortfalls are treated as a current tax expense. The total tax expense recorded in additional paid-in capital was $319, $152, and $317 in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively.

     The Company has a stock repurchase plan in place that has been authorized by the Board of Directors. As of December 31, 2011, $28,246 was available to repurchase shares under this plan. The Company expended $1,654, $17,031, and $33,459 to repurchase and retire shares during 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The excess of the repurchase price over par value is allocated between additional paid-in capital and retained earnings.

Revenue recognition and deferred revenue

     The Company receives payment, primarily via credit card, for the sale of products at the time customers place orders. Sales and related fees such as shipping and handling, net of applicable sales discounts, are recorded as revenue when the product is delivered and when title and the risk of ownership passes to the customer. Payments received for undelivered products are recorded as deferred revenue and are included in other current liabilities. Certain incentives offered on the sale of our products, including sales discounts, are classified as a reduction of revenue. A provision for product returns and allowances is recorded and is founded on historical experience. Additionally, the Company collects an annual account renewal fee from Associates that is deferred on receipt and is recognized as income on a straight-line basis over the subsequent twelve-month period.

     Taxes that have been assessed by governmental authorities and that are directly imposed on revenue-producing transactions between the Company and its customers, including sales, use, value-added, and some excise taxes, are presented on a net basis (excluded from net sales).

Product return policy

     All products that are returned within the first 30 days following purchase is refunded at 100% of the sales price to retail customers and Preferred Customers. This 30-day return policy is offered to Associates only on their first order. All other returned product that is unused and resalable is refunded up to one year from the date of purchase at 100% of the sales price less a 10% restocking fee. According to the terms of the Associate agreement, return of product where the purchase amount exceeds one hundred dollars and was not damaged at the time of receipt by the Associate may result in cancellation of the Associate's distributorship. Depending upon the conditions under which product was returned customers may either receive a refund based on their original form of payment, or credit on account for a product exchange.

     This standard policy differs slightly in a few of our international markets due to the regulatory environment in those markets. Product returns totaled approximately 1.6% of net sales in 2009, and 1.1% of net sales during fiscal years 2010, and 2011, respectively.

Shipping and handling costs

The Company's shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales for all periods presented.


Associate incentives

     Associate incentives expenses include all forms of commissions, compensation, and other incentives paid to our Associates.

Selling, general and administrative

     Selling, general and administrative expenses include wages and benefits, depreciation and amortization, rents and utilities, Associate event costs, advertising and professional fees, marketing, and research and development expenses. Equity-based compensation

     The Company records compensation expense in the financial statements for equity-based awards based on the grant date fair value and an estimate of forfeitures derived from historical experience. Equity-based compensation expense is recognized under the straight-line method over the period that service is provided, which is generally the vesting term. Further information regarding equity awards can be found in Note L – Equity-Based Compensation.


     Advertising costs are charged to expense as incurred. Advertising expense totaled $1,575 in 2009, $1,202 in 2010 and $3,893 in 2011.

Research and development

     Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred and are presented as part of selling, general and administrative expense. Research and development expense totaled $3,626 in 2009, $3,842 in 2010 and $4,071 in 2011.

Earnings per share

     Basic earnings per common share (EPS) are based on the weighted-average number of common shares that were outstanding during each period. Diluted earnings per common share include the effect of potentially dilutive common shares, which include in-the-money, equity-based awards that have been granted but have not been exercised.


     Revisions relating to deferred taxes and intangible assets have been made to the Company's financial statements to reflect adjustments made to correct the presentation of deferred taxes on a gross rather than net basis, and to record the impact of currency translation on intangible assets acquired as part of the 2010 purchase of BabyCare Holdings Ltd. These adjustments revise amounts reported for periods prior to January 2, 2011 in the financial statements and related notes, for deferred taxes, goodwill, intangible assets and accumulated other comprehensive income in the Consolidated Balance Sheet, and the foreign currency translation adjustment component of comprehensive income in the Consolidated Statement of Stockholders' Equity. While the overall net deferred tax amount has not changed, certain deferred tax line items in the Consolidated Balance Sheet have been modified to reflect a gross presentation. Additionally, goodwill and intangible assets have been increased, along with a corresponding increase in accumulated other comprehensive income, to capture the changes on these assets related to foreign currency translation. The Company determined that these revisions were not material to its previously reported consolidated financial statements. These revisions had no effect on our earnings from operations, net earnings, or earnings per share.


Revisions – continued

The following tables illustrate the effects of the revision on the Company's consolidated financial statements for only those line items that were affected:

Consolidated Balance Sheet Items

(in thousands)

  As of January 1, 2011
  As Previously
Adjustment As Revised
Prepaid expenses and other current assets, including            
current deferred tax assets $ 21,972 $ 1,405 $ 23,377
Total current assets   80,272   1,405   81,677
Goodwill   16,930   337   17,267
Intangible assets, net   40,616   1,299   41,915
Deferred tax assets   2,590   9,793   12,383
Other assets   5,826   -   5,826
Total assets   203,802   12,834   216,636
Other current liabilities   51,179   1,405   52,584
Total current liabilities   57,624   1,405   59,029
Long-term deferred tax liabilities   -   9,793   9,793
Accumulated other comprehensive income   3,721   1,636   5,357
Total stockholders' equity   145,166   1,636   146,802
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity   203,802   12,834   216,636


Consolidated Statement of Stockholders' Equity and Comprehensive Income Items

(in thousands)

  Year ended January 1, 2011
  As Previously
Adjustment As Revised
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), foreign            
currency translation adjustment $ 2,198 $ 1,636 $ 3,834
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), total            
comprehensive income   47,849   1,636   49,485
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), balance at            
January 1, 2011   3,721   1,636   5,357
Total stockholders' equity at January 1, 2011   145,166   1,636   146,802



Recently adopted accounting pronouncements

     In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2010-28, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): When to Perform Step 2 of the Goodwill Impairment Test for Reporting Units with Zero or Negative Carrying Amounts (ASU 2010-28). ASU 2010-28 modifies Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test for reporting units with zero or negative carrying amounts. For those reporting units, an entity is required to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test if it is more likely than not that a goodwill impairment exists. In determining whether it is more likely than not that a goodwill impairment exists, an entity should consider whether there are any adverse qualitative factors indicating that an impairment may exist. ASU 2010-28 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2010. The Company adopted ASU 2010-28 during the first quarter ended April 2, 2011, and its application had no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

     In December 2010, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2010-29, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations (ASU 2010-29). ASU 2010-29 has been issued to address diversity in practice about the interpretation of the pro forma revenue and earnings disclosure requirements for business combinations. The amendments in this update specify that, if a public entity presents comparative financial statements, the entity should disclose revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combinations(s) that occurred during the current year had occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. The amendments also expand the supplemental pro forma disclosures under Topic 805 to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring, pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination included in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. ASU 2010-29 is effective prospectively for business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15, 2010. The Company adopted ASU 2010-29 during the first quarter ended April 2, 2011, and its application had no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

     In September 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-08, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Goodwill for Impairment (ASU 2011-08). ASU 2011-08 simplifies how entities test goodwill for impairment. The amendments in this update permit an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. An entity also has the option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to performing the first step of the two-step goodwill impairment test. An entity may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period. Additionally, an entity no longer is permitted to carry forward its detailed calculation of a reporting unit's fair value from a prior year as previously permitted by Topic 350. ASU 2011-08 is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011; however, early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2011-08 during the third quarter ended October 1, 2011, and its application had no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Recently issued accounting pronouncements

     In May 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs (ASU 2011-04). ASU 2011-04 updates existing guidance in Topic 820 to establish common requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). ASU 2011-04 is effective prospectively for fiscal years, and interim periods, beginning after December 15, 2011. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company does not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.



In June 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income (ASU 2011-05). The objective of ASU 2011-05 is to improve the comparability, consistency, and transparency of financial reporting and to increase the prominence of items reported in other comprehensive income. To increase the prominence of items reported in other comprehensive income and to facilitate the convergence of U.S. GAAP and IFRS, ASU 2011-05 eliminates the option to present components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders' equity. Under the amendments in this update, an entity has the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. Regardless of which option is chosen, items that are reclassified from other comprehensive income to net income must be presented on the face of the financial statements. These amendments do not change the items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income. Also, the amendments do not change the option for an entity to present components of other comprehensive income either net of related tax effects or before related tax effects, with one amount shown for the aggregate income tax expense or benefit related to the total of other comprehensive income items. ASU 2011-05 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011 and will be applied retrospectively. The FASB has deferred the requirement to present reclassification adjustments for each component of accumulated other comprehensive income in both net income and other comprehensive income. Companies are required to either present amounts reclassified out of other comprehensive income on the face of the financial statements or disclose those amounts in the notes to the financial statements. During the deferral period, there is no requirement to separately present or disclose the reclassification adjustments into net income. The effective date of this deferral will be consistent with the effective date of ASU 2011-05. The Company does not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements as it only affects financial statement presentation.